Most Linux users are obsessed about what's going on in the background when system devices are running. They want to monitor their computer components as well as seeing how do their computer handle different processes to see if the system is working efficiently.

In this guide, we will introduce a list of free applications and command line tools that will help you keep a close eye on different system components such as monitoring usage and activity of your CPU, installed system memory (RAM), network, hard drives (including partitions), different hardware temperatures, swap, and so on. These tools are installable in Ubuntu 12.04 and Linux Mint 13.

A- CLI System Monitoring Tools & Commands


1. VMSTAT

Displays information about CPU, memory, processes, etc. Here are some command examples:

vmstat 3

vmstat -a

For more help:

vmstat --help

2. IOSTAT

This command line tool will display statistics about your CPU, I/O information for your hard disk partitions, Network File System (NFS), etc. To install iostat, run this command:

sudo apt-get install sysstat

To start the report, run this command:

iostat

To check only CPU statistics, use this command:

iostat -c

For hard disk:

iostat -d

For more parameters, use this command:

iostat --help

3. TOP


TOP is a command line tool that displays on the terminal active system processes in real-time. It also displays system device usage such as CPU, hard disk, swap, memory, etc. You can start it with this command:

top

To stop it, press CTRL+C. For more parameters, you can run this command:

top --help

4. HTOP


HTOP is another system monitoring  tool, but more advanced than the TOP command. HTOP is faster than TOP, and has a clean and organized interface that supports mouse operations. You can install HTOP as follows:

sudo apt-get install htop

5. MPSTAT

The mpstat command line utility will display average CPU usage per processor. To run it, use simply this command:

mpstat

For CPU usage per processor, use this command:

mpstat -P ALL

6. IPTRAF

 IPTRAF is a command line utility that displays network statistics in real-time. Install it first with this command:

sudo apt-get install iptraf

To start monitoring network activities with IPTRAF, run simply this command:

sudo iptraf

In the screen that shows up, select which service to monitor and press Enter:


7. /PROC

To get information about system devices with the help of the /Proc file system, you can use these various commands:

cat /proc/cpuinfo

cat /proc/mounts

cat /proc/meminfo

cat /proc/zoneinfo

8. Glances

Glances is a system monitoring tool that displays in real-time CPU/memory/swap usage, load time, network activity, etc.


To install Glances, run the following commands:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:arnaud-hartmann/glances-stable
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install glances

To start system monitoring, issue this command:

glances.py

9. Saidar

Saidar also allows to monitor system device activities via the command line.


You can install is with this command:

sudo apt-get install saidar

To start monitoring, run this command:

saidar -c -d 1

Stats will be refreshed every second.

B- System Monitoring Software With GUI


1. Gnome System Monitor

For Ubuntu 12.04/Linux Mint13, you can use the pre-installed Gnome System Monitor for checking information in real-time about system devices, active processes, file systems, etc.


2. GKrellM

GKrellM is a customizable widget with various themes that displays on your desktop system device information (CPU, temperature, memory, network, etc.).



To install GKrellM, run this command:

sudo apt-get install gkrellm

3. Nagios

A system & network monitoring application that allows to monitor system and network activity via a web user interface.



To install Nagios, run this command:

sudo apt-get install nagios3

During the installation, you will be required to enter administration password, submit it and press Enter:



To start system & network monitoring, open now this URL:

http://localhost/nagios3

Login using these details:

username: nagiosadmin
password: the one selected during installation

4. Monitorix

Monitorix is another application with a web-based user interface for monitoring system devices.


Install it with these commands:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:upubuntu-com/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install monitorix

Start Monitorix via this URL:

http://localhost/monitorix/

5. System Load Indicator

This application indicator is exclusive for Ubuntu. It displays on your upper panel, a menu containing various device usage such as CPU, memory, hard disk, load time, network download upload speed, etc.


To install System Load Indicator on Ubuntu 12.04, run these commands:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:indicator-multiload/stable-daily
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install indicator-multiload

 6. Hardware Sensors Indicator

This indicator allows users to monitor temperatures of your CPU, hard disk, etc. 


To install it on Ubuntu 12.04, run the following commands:

wget -O indicator-sensors_0.1-1_i386.deb http://goo.gl/268Jo

sudo dpkg -i indicator-sensors_0.1-1_i386.deb

7. i-Nex

A CPU-Z alternative for Linux that displays various device information (CPU brand & speed, motherboard, cache, sound, etc.).


Its installation is very simple, just run the following commands from the terminal:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:i-nex-development-team/daily
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nemh/gambas3
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install i-nex

If you have another useful system monitoring tool, you can mention it below.
 
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